Chemical elements
  Calcium
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    PDB 158d-1ajq
    PDB 1ak9-1ayk
    PDB 1ayo-1bg7
    PDB 1bg9-1byh
    PDB 1byn-1c8q
    PDB 1c8t-1cq1
    PDB 1cq9-1daq
    PDB 1dav-1dva
    PDB 1dvi-1el1
    PDB 1ela-1f4n
    PDB 1f4o-1fkq
    PDB 1fkv-1fzd
    PDB 1fze-1g9i
    PDB 1g9j-1gr3
    PDB 1gsl-1h5h
    PDB 1h5i-1hn4
    PDB 1hny-1i9z
    PDB 1ia6-1iyi
    PDB 1iz7-1jc2
    PDB 1jc9-1jui
    PDB 1jv2-1kck
    PDB 1kcl-1kvx
    PDB 1kvy-1led
    PDB 1lem-1lqd
    PDB 1lqe-1may
    PDB 1mbq-1mxe
    PDB 1mxg-1nfy
    PDB 1ng0-1nwg
    PDB 1nwk-1o3g
    PDB 1o3h-1om7
    PDB 1om8-1p7v
    PDB 1p7w-1pva
    PDB 1pvb-1qdo
    PDB 1qdt-1qq9
    PDB 1qqj-1rin
    PDB 1rio-1s10
    PDB 1s18-1scv
    PDB 1sdd-1su4
    PDB 1sub-1tf4
    PDB 1tf8-1top
    PDB 1tpa-1ujb
    PDB 1ujc-1uyy
    PDB 1uyz-1v73
    PDB 1v7v-1w2k
    PDB 1w2m-1wua
    PDB 1wun-1xkv
    PDB 1xmf-1y3x
    PDB 1y3y-1yqr
    PDB 1yr5-1zde
    PDB 1zdp-2a3x
    PDB 2a3y-2arb
    PDB 2are-2bd2
    PDB 2bd3-2bu4
    PDB 2bue-2c6g
    PDB 2c6p-2cy6
    PDB 2cyf-2dso
    PDB 2dtw-2eab
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    PDB 2ff1-2fwn
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    PDB 2gjr-2hd9
    PDB 2hes-2i6o
    PDB 2i7a-2ivz
    PDB 2iwa-2j7g
    PDB 2j7h-2jke
    PDB 2jkh-2kuh
    PDB 2kxv-2o1k
    PDB 2o39-2ovz
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    PDB 2pz0-2qu1
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    PDB 2tn4-2vcb
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    PDB 2vr0-2w3i
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    PDB 2x0g-2xmr
    PDB 2xn5-2z2z
    PDB 2z30-2zn9
    PDB 2zni-3a51
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    PDB 3ai7-3bcf
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    PDB 3bxi-3ch2
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    PDB 3dng-3e4q
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    PDB 3faw-3fou
    PDB 3foz-3gci
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    PDB 3ior-3k5m
    PDB 3k5s-3kqa
    PDB 3kqf-3lei
    PDB 3lek-3lum
    PDB 3lun-3mip
    PDB 3mis-3n7b
    PDB 3n7x-3nvn
    PDB 3nx7-3owf
    PDB 3ox5-3prq
    PDB 3prr-3sg5
    PDB 3sg6-3u39
    PDB 3u43-3vpp
    PDB 3zqx-4awy
    PDB 4awz-4dtu
    PDB 4dtx-4eoa
    PDB 4epz-5apr
    PDB 5bca-8tln
    PDB 966c-9rnt

Physical Properties of Calcium






Calcium crystallises in hexagonal or rhombohedric plates, which, when freshly cut, have a bright silver-white appearance. X-ray analysis shows that the calcium atoms are arranged as a face-centred cube, each being surrounded by twelve equi-distant atoms. The diameter of the atoms - that is, the distance from centre to centre of contiguous atoms - is 3.40×10-8 cm.

Calcium is malleable and can be drawn into wire of mm. diameter. The hardness is 2.2 – 2.5 on Mohs' scale - that is, between lead and Iceland spar, or about equal to that of aluminium. The tensile strength is 612 kgm. per sq. cm.

The following values have been given for the specific electrical resistance: 3.43×10-6 ohms per c.c. at 0° C., temperature coefficient 0.00457; 4.6×10-6 ohms per c.c. at ordinary temperature, increasing linearly up to about 13.6×10-3 ohms at 600° C., with a temperature coefficient of 0.00364; 6.77×10-6 ohms per c.c. at ordinary temperature.

Swisher also determined the thermo-electric power to be positive with respect to lead, the potential varying from 8.9 microvolts per degree at 50° C., to 14.0 microvolts at 400° C.

Calcium has two resonance potentials: 1.90 volts, the wave-length determining it being 6572.78 Å; and 2.85 volts, wave-length 4226.73 Å. The ionisation potential is 6.1 volts, and the corresponding wave-length 2027.56 Å. McLennan and Young found 6.12 volts for the ionisation potential and λ = 2028.2 Å.

The ionic mobility of ½Ca is 51.

Using a dropping mercury cathode, Heyrovsky showed the deposition potential of the calcium ion to be -2.023 volts.

The photo-electric emission of electrons by calcium is normal over wave-lengths 2300 Å to 7000 Å, and has a maximum value at λ = 3650 Å. This maximum becomes more pronounced as the angle of incidence diminishes.

When heated, calcium becomes positively charged.

The density of calcium appears to be in the neighbourhood of 1.54. Higher values given by earlier investigators are evidently due to impurities, which will, for the most part, be heavier than calcium. For the redistilled metal Arndt obtained the value 1.52, and Biltz and Hohorst,1.542 at 25° C. Brace found 1.46 for the density of the cold rolled material at 22° C.

The melting-point of calcium is 810° C., but it will sublime below the melting-point and is very volatile above it. It is more volatile than either barium or strontium. The vapour pressure of calcium at the melting-point is 2 mm., and, by calculation from the vapour-pressure curve, the boiling-point is 1240° C.

More extensive specific heat investigations have been carried out by Eastman and Rodebush, employing Nernst's method for low temperatures. The specific heat at -205.4° C. is 0.098, corresponding to an atomic heat of 3.93, and this value gradually increases with temperature until, at 20.5° C., the value 0.169, atomic heat 6.75, is reached.

The most intense lines in the spectrum of calcium, measured in Angstrom units, are the following: -

Arc: Ultra-violet: 2197.791, 2208.606, 3006.864, 3158.877, 3361.918, 3644.400; Visible: 3706.022, 3933.68, 3968.482, 4226.731, 4283.008, 4302.527, 4425.428, 4434.947, 4454.765, 4585.868, 5265.559, 5349.470, 5588.746, 5857.476, 6162.177, 6439.086, 6462.576, 6493.789, 6572.783; Infra-red: 8499.3, 8542.6, 8662.6, 10345.0.

Spark: Ultra-violet: 2197.94, 2208.83, 2398.61, 3158.864, 3179.345; Visible: 3933.67, 3968.476, 4226.730, 4283.004, 4289.361, 4298.985, 4302.523, 4435.960, 4454.780.


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